The Rediscovery of India considers the partition of India in 1947 to have been the most disastrous of political solutions for the subcontinent. Tracing past history, the author shows how the Indian leaders were manipulated by the British into seeing it as the only solution.The harsh experience of the last fifty years must be used to put away the political weakness which has brought India, Pakistan and
Bangladesh to the brink of disintegration. A fresh solution has to be.sought in the form of a confederation. A provocative book on the historical problems which have acquired new dimensions in the
contemporary political scene.
Since the time of the Kushans, about A.D. 120, Indian rule had reached into the valley of Kabul. In the middle of the seventh century, when the Arab onslaughts on the area began, a descendant of the Kushan king
Kanishka ruled over the area from Kabul across the Indus into Kashmir.The dynasty was known as the Turki Shahiya. The king’s Brahman minister usurped the throne, establishing the Indian Shahiya or Hindu Shahiya line.The Arab invasion of Sind, 300 years prior to that of the Afghan
from the northwest, was not marked by any unusual atrocity once the fighting had been done. West and north of India, the Arabs had made conquests at about the same time as their occupation of Sind. Expanding from Persia, they went into the heartland of Turkestan. (From there Timur would spread his conquests over Izmir to Delhi, and his descen-
dant, Babur, would install the Mughal dynasty.) The Arab entry into Transoxiana, the land beyond the Amu-darya and the Syr-darya, the more northern river, first began as raids. It was only after Sind had been settled that the Arabs became masters of the northern region, though their expansion in the two areas was militarily unrelated. While the
north was also won by war about A.D.715, the Arabs allowed the existing princes to retain their thrones, exercising sovereign power over them from the Persian centre of Khorassan, where their conquest had met with stubborn resistance from the Irani and Turki inhabitants, adopted their religion en masse.
One important fact that emerges and distinguishes Arabs from the Turki/Afghans of the northwest is their religious tolerance. Their subject people in the Indus valley and to the southeast were spared forced conversion and the destruction of idols and temples except
for some stray incidents at the outset of their rule. The Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim, who commanded the Arab force which entered Sind in A.D. 711, did not see his campaign as a holy war of conquest. He did not impose the choice of conversion or death but granted amnesty to his Indian idolaters. He was the first to impose jeziya in India in A.D.
712 on the inhabitants of Sehwan near modern Hyderabad (Sind).Another important aspect of the Arab invasion was that it remained sequestered in the western-southwestern corner of India. While Chalukya from the mid-south, and Gurjar.